The New Testament’s Olivet Discourse holds a very special place in the hearts of Christians everywhere. Its setting on the Mount of Olives places a dramatic vista in the mind of the reader, as Jesus answered His disciples’ questions about the future. They were seated across the Kidron Valley from the Temple Mount complex … considered to be a world-class architectural triumph. In Matthew 23, Jesus had lamented the grief that would befall His own generation. Of His own people, He had said, “Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation” (Matt. 23:36). He made it clear to His disciples that their beautiful Jerusalem was about to be destroyed. They knew that He had come to bring about the Kingdom, and they now had learned that this event was to be delayed. This raised two major questions in their minds: 1. “When will these things be?” 2. “What is the sign of Your coming and the end of the age?”
He answered, telling them of future global wars, famines, pestilences and earthquakes. These, He called the “beginning of birth pangs.” He told them of the Great Tribulation, and of His Second Coming. Finally, he spoke of the Fig Tree, sprouting forth as a sign that all these things were about to come to pass. He referred to it as a “generation.” He went on to say that the conditions experienced by this generation would be similar to those witnessed by Noah and his family, when the whole earth was immersed in divine judgment.
As He spoke, He concluded with a remark that has stimulated a number of conjectures over the years. He said, “This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled” (Matthew 24:34).
His proclamation refers to what has been called “the last generation.” The context of His prophecy is critically important. He is speaking to a Jewish audience, addressing His remarks to members of the “fig tree” nation. These would be Jews of the generation that witnesses events leading up to the Great Tribulation, then moving forward to actually experience it.
Are the Jews of our generation the people that Jesus spoke of? To answer this question, we shall examine several biblical expressions that actually use the term, “generation.”
There is a Hebrew expression found in the Old Testament that is usually translated as, “the generation to come.” This idiom is taken from some form of HaDor HaAcharon. The most direct translation of this phrase is, “the last generation.”
As we shall see, the meaning of Jesus’ prophecy is greatly clarified by an understanding of this phrase and its common use in the Old Testament. A bit later, we will return to this expression to show how it points forward to the period of the latter days.
As He spoke to His disciples, Jesus was well aware that the meaning of a “generation” would be something of a mystery to his hearers. But He spoke in a context that had meaning to them. One imagines them seated in the shade of an ancient olive tree, as they gazed across the Kidron Valley toward the magnificent complex of concourses, stairways, porticos, palaces and courtyards. The centerpiece of their attention was the Temple, itself.
Construction on this huge project – considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world – had begun some fifty years earlier! At the time Jesus spoke, it would still be almost twenty years before the completion of the whole Temple complex. Tragically, the completed development would last only about a year before being completely destroyed by the Roman forces of Titus and Vespasian in A.D. 70.
As Jesus addressed the inner circle of His followers, He spoke of future world wars, famines and diseases. In this context, He mentioned the latter-day rebirth of Israel, something the disciples could not have understood at the time. He commented upon Daniel’s prophecy of the antichrist in the Temple. He used the term, “great Tribulation,” to describe the events surrounding Israel’s regathering. He even spoke of His Second Coming in the clouds of glory.
It was at this point, that He spoke one of his most famous parables:
“32 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: 33 So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. 34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. 35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away” (Matthew 24:32-35.)
It’s safe to say that from the day He made this pronouncement, right down to the present day, men have not ceased trying to understand precisely what He was saying.
What Did Jesus Say?
Today, some (preterists) are convinced that He was referring to the generation then alive. The longest-lived among His disciples was John, who died at the end of the first century. Under this premise, one could stretch Jesus’ prophetic words to this particular event. So the wars, abomination, famine, earthquakes and great Tribulation all took place in that time period. Instead of interpreting His prophecy as a global phenomenon, they make all His prophecies into the local setting of first-century Jerusalem.
It is true that Israel is the centerpiece of the prophecy, but its context must agree with all other New Testament prophecy, the book of Revelation in particular. There, the prophecy is clearly global in scope.
Nevertheless, His reference to the key prophetic generation of the entire Bible is given in the image of a fig tree. This tree is depicted “putting forth leaves,” as it would in the spring, when getting ready to bear fruit. The point is that the prophetic tree is growing, not diminishing.
So, “this generation,” is the “fig tree” generation, and often goes by that name. The fig tree is the symbol of National Israel. A key prophecy given by Jeremiah makes this crystal clear:
“5 Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel; Like these good figs, so will I acknowledge them that are carried away captive of Judah, whom I have sent out of this place into the land of the Chaldeans for their good. 6 For I will set mine eyes upon them for good, and I will bring them again to this land: and I will build them, and not pull them down; and I will plant them, and not pluck them up. 7 And I will give them an heart to know me, that I am the LORD: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God: for they shall return unto me with their whole heart” (Jeremiah 24:5-7).
Here, the good figs are the leaders of Israel. Their wholehearted return to the land of Israel is not the near fulfillment witnessed in the Israelite return from Babylonian captivity. This Scripture predicts their final return, when they shall receive a new heart and revival in the Spirit of the Lord. Jeremiah says that they will be planted and not pulled down. They were, in fact, pulled down in A.D. 70, and again in A.D. 135, following the revolt led by Simeon Bar Kochba. In the final regathering, they will be permanently replanted. And what do you get when you plant a fig? You get a fig tree! That’s Israel!
This is the generation to which Jesus undoubtedly referred.
When Was The Fig Tree Planted
The dark years following Israel’s first-century diaspora really began to brighten in the year 1878, when a few Russian Jews pioneered efforts to “make aliya” (go up to the Land), and establish settlements in the stark deserts and swamps of a then-desolate Israel. Their efforts, and the work of those who followed them, raised the consciousness of world Jewry. In 1897, the first World Zionist Congress was held in Basle, Switzerland.” Plans were laid out to win back Israel, then held by the Ottoman Turks.
World War One brought Israel into the sights of British politicians and generals. The Balfour Declaration of 1917 promised Israel access to their Land. But before that could happen, Jews of the diaspora were forced to bear the insults of World War Two, the Holocaust and the ravages of international anti-Semitism.
Following the United Nations Mandate of 1947, Israel declared statehood on May 14, 1948.
Metaphorically speaking, Jeremiah’s description of the planting of figs corresponds with Israel’s laborious restoration of the Land. Through many difficulties, wars, pogroms and the enormous obstacles of weather, drought and financial need, the Jews converted the barren Land to remarkable fertility. The first half of the twentieth century saw the first planting of Jesus’ prophecy come to fruition. By the year 1948, the leaves of the tree began to shoot forth. Expressed differently, the tree of national Israel had grown to the point that it was recognized as viable and strong. Israel is placed in an international context in Luke’s account of the Olivet Discourse:
“29 And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig tree, and all the trees; 30 When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now nigh at hand. 31 So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand. 32 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled” (Luke 21:29-32).
Here, the text adds an additional note of clarification. Not only are we to watch the “fig tree” (national Israel), but we are to watch other trees, as well. If Israel is represented by the fig tree, the other trees would be the nations that rise up at roughly the same time Israel became a nation.
Recent history reveals precisely this kind of development. At the midpoint of the twentieth century, most of the current “nations” were third-world enclaves of tribal illiteracy. In the last fifty years or so, they have rapidly grown (both in numbers and capability) to become important players on the world scene. The following brief look at the U.N. membership roster shows just how rapidly their numbers have grown.
On April 25, 1945, representatives from 50 nations met in San Francisco at “The United Nations Conference on International Organization.” They agreed upon a charter, which was signed on the 25th of June of that year.
By 1948, membership had grown to 58. The following year, Israel became a member, bringing the total number of represented nations to 59. By 1960, membership had grown to 99. Growth continued at a rapid rate. By 1970, 127 nations were included. In 1980 the number had risen to 154. In 1990, the number was 159. The year 2000 saw 189 nations in the roster.
Currently – and remaining more or less stable – U. N. membership now encompasses 193 nations.
Their rapid growth meets the biblical prediction that they would “shoot forth.” Trees that had languished under the long winter of the dark ages, feudalism and colonialism are now realizing modernization through international banking and high-tech telecommunications. Real-time satellite transmission and the Internet have brought them into the cultural medium of the twenty-first century. As the angel told the prophet Daniel, “But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased” (Daniel 12:4).
Just as Luke’s Olivet text predicted, we have now seen the latter-day multiplication of nations erupting with unprecedented speed. He added that when this phenomenon was observed, “summer is now nigh at hand.” Summer, of course, is the time of harvesting the fruit of the trees. And Jesus, Himself, said, “… the harvest is the end of the world.” Here, He refers to the completion of the “age,” from the Greek word aion. In context, He is speaking of the grain harvest as a metaphor of the final judgment. It should be remembered that summer is the season when both grain and fruit are harvested:
“38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; 39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. 40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world” (Matthew 13:38-40).
There are many expressions of the harvest as judgment in the Day of the Lord. One of the clearest is found in Micah, Chapter 7:
“1 Woe is me! For I am as when they have gathered the summer fruits, as the grapegleanings of the vintage: there is no cluster to eat: my soul desired the firstripe fruit” (Micah 7:1).
Here, Micah expresses the same thought as did Jesus in His famous discourse. He speaks as the plaintive voice of national Israel at the time of judgment, when the tiny nation faces the persecution of a massive world system during the Great Tribulation. When the nations spring forth as trees, the harvest judgment is near. This is the generation of which Jesus spoke.
This brings us back to the Hebrew expression we mentioned at the beginning of this article. It is ha dor ha acharon. It is first found in the book of Deuteronomy, in a prophecy that foretells the dispersion of the Jews, as they are scattered to the four corners of the world. This phrase is found in the following passage, where it is translated, “the generation to come,”
“21 And the LORD shall separate him unto evil out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covenant that are written in this book of the law: 22 So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land, and the sicknesses which the LORD hath laid upon it; 23 And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the LORD overthrew in his anger, and in his wrath: 24 Even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this land? what meaneth the heat of this great anger? 25 Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of their fathers, which he made with them when he brought them forth out of the land of Egypt: 26 For they went and served other gods, and worshipped them, gods whom they knew not, and whom he had not given unto them: 27 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against this land, to bring upon it all the curses that are written in this book: 28 And the LORD rooted them out of their land in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation, and cast them into another land, as it is this day. 29 The secret things belong unto the LORD our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law” (Deut. 29:21-29).
This is the prophecy of Israel’s complete dispersion. After years of disobedience, their covenant with the Lord through Abraham finally catches up with them. The generation addressed here is the one that we are most familiar with. It began with the diaspora of AD 135 and two millennia of desolation. The land of Israel became a treeless, swampy, drought-ridden desert. It was a testimony of Jewish disobedience. Many thought that they were through forever … set aside to see others take charge of the ancient Kingdom promises made to the twelve tribes. It was generally believed that their forsaking of that covenant meant permanent exile.
Here, we have a prophecy of latter-day Israel, ravaged by sin and time, its people dispersed and despised. The generation mentioned here is the generation that is now in the process of returning to restore the Land. As we have seen, the first stage of this regathering has already begun. This passage clearly refers to what it calls “the generation to come.” At first glance, it seems to be speaking of some indeterminate future generation. In fact, it clearly refers to the final generation.
It is most important to understand that ha dor ha acharon can just as easily be translated as, “the last generation,” since the word acharon means, “hindmost, last in order, last of a series” or simply, “last.” It is clear that this prophecy is referring to the last generation – the one that comes back to prepare Israel to bring in the Kingdom Age.
The Generation Following
Other variations of this expression are also found within the framework of Israel’s latter-day regathering. Psalm 48 offers an excellent example of the placement of the “last generation” into a prophetic context. This Psalm is focused upon Mount Zion, the Temple Mount. It opens upon a chorus of praise for Jerusalem and the Holy Mountain:
“1 Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness. 2 Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King. 3 God is known in her palaces for a refuge. 4 For, lo, the kings were assembled, they passed by together. 5 They saw it, and so they marvelled; they were troubled, and hasted away. 6 Fear took hold upon them there, and pain, as of a woman in travail. 7 Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind. 8 As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the LORD of hosts, in the city of our God: God will establish it for ever. Selah. 9 We have thought of thy lovingkindness, O God, in the midst of thy temple. 10 According to thy name, O God, so is thy praise unto the ends of the earth: thy right hand is full of righteousness. 11 Let mount Zion rejoice, let the daughters of Judah be glad, because of thy judgments. 12 Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers thereof. 13 Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces; that ye may tell it to the generation following. 14 For this God is our God for ever and ever: he will be our guide even unto death” (Psalm 48:1-14).
In these words, there can be no doubt that Jerusalem and the Temple Mount are the focus of the Lord’s long-term redemptive plan. This Psalm opens with praise for the City of God, then closes with a command to Israel: Spread the news of Israel’s regathering to the whole world. It uses a variation of the “generation to come” phrase found in Deuteronomy 29. In verse seven we find a prophecy about the “ships of Tarshish.” They are the merchant traders of the Western world. In a monumental stroke of diplomatic perfidy, they attempted to blockade the ships of Jews returning to Israel after World War Two and the Holocaust. But they were defeated.
Here, Israel’s leaders are urged to survey the Holy Mountain, called “Zion,” marking its chief features and foundations. This is exactly what modern Israelis have done, since the earliest days that Israel was replanted in the Land. But note the closing reference, which we have highlighted above.
Here, the phrase, “to the generation following” is a translation of the Hebrew l’dor acharon. Again, we find the term acharon, meaning “last of an order,” or simply, “last.” This is a reference to the generation that would return to Israel, there to be charged with the responsibility of surveying and restoring the ancient Temple Mount. It is the “last generation.”
The political obstacles to their task are formidable, yet they have made slow but significant progress toward the establishment of the Temple. In June 2005, the newly-restored Sanhedrin even called for the preparation of a prefabricated Temple that could be quickly assembled on the Mount.
Psalm 78 offers another reference to the last generation. Here, it is given in the context of Israel’s latter-day spiritual condition. The Spirit of the Lord is shown giving them guidance, in spite of their continued unbelief:
“1 Give ear, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth. 2 I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old: 3 Which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. 4 We will not hide them from their children, shewing to the generation to come the praises of the LORD, and his strength, and his wonderful works that he hath done. 5 For he established a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children: 6 That the generation to come might know them, even the children which should be born; who should arise and declare them to their children: 7 That they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments: 8 And might not be as their fathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation; a generation that set not their heart aright, and whose spirit was not stedfast with God. (Psa. 78:1-8).
In the verses above, we have highlighted two occurrences of the phrase, “the generation to come.” In Hebrew, these two phrases are identical. They are again translated from l’dor acharon. We have identified this phrase, as referring to “the last generation.” Note that the Lord is making an impassioned appeal to this last generation. He asks them to listen and understand the ancient words of Scripture. There, they will find “dark sayings.” That is, they are to search the Scriptures for the hidden, inner meanings that will illuminate God’s plan for them. Chiefly, these would be Messianic prophecies, which have been hidden to Israel for many generations.
Now, in this “last generation,” they are urged to look deeply, so that they will be prepared for that which, from their perspective, is shortly to come.
The Restoration of Zion
There is yet another reference to the last generation, using the same Hebrew term. It is found in Psalm 102. And again, this Psalm refers to the restoration of Zion. Note that it speaks of the very building blocks (“stones”) in the ancient architecture of Zion. In fact, the rebuilding of Zion is the heart of this prophecy. It begins as the prayer of a saint, overwhelmed by seemingly unconquerable difficulties. Its title says exactly that:
“ A Prayer of the afflicted, when he is overwhelmed, and poureth out his complaint before the LORD.”
Then it begins in earnest:
1 Hear my prayer, O LORD, and let my cry come unto thee. 2 Hide not thy face from me in the day when I am in trouble; incline thine ear unto me: in the day when I call answer me speedily. 3 For my days are consumed like smoke, and my bones are burned as an hearth. 4 My heart is smitten, and withered like grass; so that I forget to eat my bread. 5 By reason of the voice of my groaning my bones cleave to my skin. 6 I am like a pelican of the wilderness: I am like an owl of the desert. 7 I watch, and am as a sparrow alone upon the house top. 8 Mine enemies reproach me all the day; and they that are mad against me are sworn against me. 9 For I have eaten ashes like bread, and mingled my drink with weeping, 10 Because of thine indignation and thy wrath: for thou hast lifted me up, and cast me down. 11 My days are like a shadow that declineth; and I am withered like grass. 12 But thou, O LORD, shalt endure for ever; and thy remembrance unto all generations. 13 Thou shalt arise, and have mercy upon Zion: for the time to favour her, yea, the set time, is come. 14 For thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and favour the dust thereof. 15 So the heathen shall fear the name of the LORD, and all the kings of the earth thy glory. 16 When the LORD shall build up Zion, he shall appear in his glory. 17 He will regard the prayer of the destitute, and not despise their prayer. 18 This shall be written for the generation to come: and the people which shall be created shall praise the LORD” (Psalm 102:1-18)
It would be hard to find a prophecy as distinct and specific as this one. The rebuilding of Zion is the destiny set out “for the generation to come,” in other words, the last generation. Once again, we find the familiar Hebrew phrase, l’dor acharon. When Jesus told His disciples, “This generation shall not pass away, till all these things be fulfilled,” He was speaking of the generation of the “fig tree,” and “all the trees.” And the “set time” has come!
Downfall of the Antichrist
There’s another reference to the last generation that seems to refer to the Antichrist, placing a curse upon him:
1 Hold not thy peace, O God of my praise; 2 For the mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful are opened against me: they have spoken against me with a lying tongue. 3 They compassed me about also with words of hatred; and fought against me without a cause. 4 For my love they are my adversaries: but I give myself unto prayer. 5 And they have rewarded me evil for good, and hatred for my love. 6 Set thou a wicked man over him: and let Satan stand at his right hand. 7 When he shall be judged, let him be condemned: and let his prayer become sin. 8 Let his days be few; and let another take his office. 9 Let his children be fatherless, and his wife a widow. 10 Let his children be continually vagabonds, and beg: let them seek their bread also out of their desolate places. 11 Let the extortioner catch all that he hath; and let the strangers spoil his labour. 12 Let there be none to extend mercy unto him: neither let there be any to favour his fatherless children. 13 Let his posterity be cut off; and in the generation following let their name be blotted out.
The prophecy against this “wicked man” is clearly directed toward the latter days and the House of David, which is here accused of being God’s adversaries despite His love for them. Virtually every prophecy of the Antichrist shows him being empowered by Satan, and certainly, that is the case here. This prophecy also agrees with many others, showing that he will be completely defeated. But here, even his posterity is accursed. Their names will be removed from the Book of Life “in the generation following.” Once again, the Hebrew source of this phrase indicates that it is the last generation that is intended.
The six occurrences of the Hebrew phrase meaning the “last generation” tell a specific story, in the order of their appearance:
FIRST – Found in Deuteronomy 29:22. In this context, it tells the future story of Israel returning to a land ravaged by “plagues, sicknesses, brimstone, salt and burning.” This is exactly what the Jews found when they returned to the land
in the 19th century.
SECOND – Describes the activities of Psalm 48:13, where Israel is seen surveying the ancient roads and ruins of Israel, and probing the buried archaeological treasures that tell the story of their ancient history.
THIRD – The phrase is found twice in Psalm 78. The first time, in Psalm 78:4, it speaks of the new generation of returned Israelis, who are learning the ancient Scriptures. (In the twentieth century, Hebrew began to be the spoken language of Israel).
FOURTH – In Psalm 78:6, this amazing phrase depicts a generation who have arisen to defend the land and declare their hope in God.
FIFTH – In Psalm 102:18, we find that the last generation encounters great difficulty: “For my days are consumed like smoke, and my bones burned as an hearth.” Latter-day Israel has, of course, been plagued with wars and opposition, which will continue into the days of the Antichrist.
SIXTH – Last, we find the Antichrist: “Set thou a wicked man over him: and let Satan stand at his right hand” (Ps. 109:6). About whom, we read: “Let his posterity be cut off; and in the generation following let their name be blotted out.”
There is no doubt that this is an extended prophecy of events to be experienced by the “last generation” of which Jesus spoke as He sat with His disciples on the Mount of Olives:
• Deuteronomy 29:21 – Israel returns to a barren land … [Yes!] • Psalm 48:14 – Israel rebuilds the land … [Yes!]
• Psalm 78:4 – Israel recognizes prophetic Scripture … [Yes!] • Psalm 78:6 – Israel begins spiritual revival … [Yes!]
• Psalm 102:18 – The Tribulation begins … [Not yet.]
• Psalm 109:13 – The Antichrist arises … [Not yet.]
If the leaves of the fig tree can be said to have sprung forth with Israeli statehood in 1948, then this particular generation is now seventy years old. Of course, no one can be certain about the actual birth date of the last generation, but Israel has aptly been called “God’s timepiece.” This is true for a reason. Because, when Israel is in her own Holy Land, miraculous things begin to happen. Years of drought have now given way to fruition. Israel is the California of the Middle East, with fruit and vegetable exports that keep Europe fed. Israeli technology and invention leads the world. Sadly, Scripture predicts a coming series of wars there, followed by the rise of the Antichrist. On the bright side, through the prophecies of the Bible, we can now view Israel’s march toward the establishment of the Kingdom.
There is hardly any doubt that we are witnessing the conditions surrounding the initial restoration of Zion. We must, therefore, be living in the last generation. Yet to come are Israel’s decisive latter-day wars (Ezekiel 38, in particular) and the revealing of the Antichrist.
Looking back at the sixfold sequence of events, it stands to reason that Israel has already fulfilled all but the last two. And before that happens, the Church will be caught up in the rapture, which could come at any time.